Environment


Technical information

Airport Vulnerability to Climate Change

STAC - 2016 - A4 - 4 pages - Free

Read English version - Download English version (pdf 3,8 Mo)

The VULCLIM study aims to assess the vulnerability of airports in metropolitan France and oversea territories from a methodology for measuring climate hazards and their potential impacts.

These specific climatic hazards were identified from scenarios developed by the French Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (GIEC). Various airport operators gave feedback on the impacts of climate phenomena.

These feedback have helped STAC to develop a methodology for vulnerability analysis, tested and refined in cooperation with the operator of Nice airport.


Technical Guidance

Aircraft emissions calculation guide

STAC - 2015 - A4 - 28 pages - Price 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf file 3,3 Mo)

This guide presents a general methodology for the calculation of atmospheric emissions from aircraft on and around an airport.

It can be used by managers of airports and services of the French CAA to help them to perform or engage an environmental approach applied to the field of air quality, especially in the context of emission inventory.


Technical Guidance

Airport air quality assessment

STAC - 2015 - A4 - 72 pages - Price 33 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf file 4,8 Mo)

The aim of this manual is to help aerodrome managers and public services to perform a local air quality assessment. It was made to provide advices and recommendations in relation to existing needs in this field.

It focuses on airport measurement campaign. The framework for assessing air quality described in this manual mainly relates to the outside air, especially in the close vicinity of the airport.


Technical Guidance

Computing noise contours around aerodromes

STAC - 2014 - A4 - 56 pages - Price : 33 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf file 1,9 Mo)

The aim of this manual on noise contours around civil and military aerodromes is to describe a common methodology to harmonize, at the French national level, aircraft noise modellers’ practices. International reference documents remain document 9911 from ICAO and document 29 from ECAC.

This manual is intended for aircraft noise modellers and other people involved in producing and adopting noise maps around aerodromes : governmental services, local communities, ACNUSA, aerodromes neighbours, aerodrome management…

This manual has been approved by ACNUSA (French independant authority in charge of aircraft noise around airports) agreement.


Technical information

Weighted mesure-based overall indicator

STAC - 2012 - A4 - 4 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 1,7 Mo)

The « weighted measure-based overall » indicator (called IGMP for “Indicateur Global Mesuré Pondéré”) represents the noise energy at Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle airport. Defined by a decree dated on January 28th 2003, it restricts for each year the overall amount of noise energy emitted by aircraft activity at the airport.

IGMP is calculated since 2007 by the Technical Civil Aviation Centre (STAC), from noise measurements carried out continuously over a year by ADP (“Aéroports de Paris”). Each year, this indicator statement is submitted to the Independent Airport Nuisance Control Authority (ACNUSA), and is finally forwarded to Environment Advisory Committee.

This document introduces IGMP’s principles and terms to the method of calculation.


Technical information

“Green” taxiing on major airports

Simulations of Paris-Charles de Gaulle

STAC - 2012 - A4 4 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 585 Ko)

Aircraft use a non negligible quantity of fuel for taxiing, especially if they are short or medium haul airplanes operating on large airports requiring long taxiing distances. The fuel burnt while taxiing leads to the emission of two types of pollutants, those which have a local impact (SO2, NOx, CO, unburnt hydrocarbons, particulate matter) and those which have a global impact (CO2, H2O).

The French Civil Aviation Technical Center has led several studies in order to evaluate the impact on a large airport’s traffic management in case of the introduction of aircraft equipped with slower environment friendly taxi systems amongst regular and faster aircraft.


Study report

Integration of environmental aspects in airport capacity studies

STAC - 2012 - A4 70 pages - 33 €

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Data used for airport capacity studies are extremely detailed and complete. They can therefore be used in order to evaluate some environmental impacts as well.

This report describes a fuel burn and emission model designed to allow the calculation of precise estimates of both, the fuel consumption and the pollutants emission of aircrafts while they land, taxi, and take-off.

Taking those estimates into account in an airport capacity study adds a multidisciplinary dimension to the evaluation of the advantages and drawbacks of the various scenarios considered.

This report also describes the technical tools created in order to put the fuel burn and pollutants emission model in application, namely a database of aircraft emissions and fuel consumption, and a computer program designed to link the data contained in said database to the airport capacity simulation data.

Eventually, this report presents the results obtained with those tools for an actual airport capacity study, in order to demonstrate the possibilities offered by this model.


Study report

Functional properties of runway deicers

STAC - 2011 - 2nd edition - A4 84 pages - 24 €

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This report on the evaluation of de-icing products performance is primarily intended for airport operators responsible for the implementation of winter maintenance operations on airfields.

Based on a series of harmonized and standardized tests implemented on runway deicing products used in France, this document completes current data available on the subject and allow airport managers in charge of deicing operations to compare each fluid and to improve their utilization.

12 off-the-shelf formulations (8 liquid and 4 solid) have been tested as part of this study. All the results are presented in this document, which is a baseline of technical knowledge enabling runway deicing operational procedures to be optimized, and air safety and environmental risks to be mitigated.

This issue has been reworked to include the following improvements:

  • the product data sheets are complemented by a report presenting and analyzing the main results, together with recommendations for use; this report is now the master part of this document,
  • all the “product data sheets” have been updated to include the results of new, standardized tests (self-ignition point, flash point, biodegradability, particle size, kinematic viscosity, etc.),
  • the “product data sheets” are now available for solid, sodium formate and acetate based formulations, and a liquid formulation produced by the agro-industry.

STAC received technical support for this study from the “winter maintenance – engineering and equipment” resource team of the Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées in Nancy, France.


Technical information

Aviation and energy

Alternative fuels certification

STAC - 2011 - A4 4 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 399 Ko)

Air Transport is particularly interested in alternative fuels, which could lower its dependance towards oil and reduce its environmental impact.

Alternative fuels must comply with very precise specifications, because of their conditions of use and airplane performance constraints. Thus, alternative fuels must prove that they are miscible with present fuels and can replace totally or partially conventional kerosene.

Due to multiplicity of non conventional products which applied for this qualification, it is now necessary to extend this framework to the qualification of a product line stemming from a same manufacturing process.


Study Report

Aviation and climate

Analysis of public policy to mitigate the impact of aviation on climate change

STAC – 2010 - A4 - 144 pages - 42 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 5,6 Mo)

This report aims at analyzing the policy measures that could help reducing the contribution of aviation to climate changes.

The greenhouse effect and the impact of aviation on climate changes are first described. Such effect is greater than the effect stemming from CO2 emissions alone and will rise in the future.

An analyze of the progress lines which could allow for a reduction of the aviation impact on climate is then performed. This process however does not involve all the sector’s actors nor does it contemplate each of the impact of aviation on climate.

The third chapter provides for a typology and an assessment of policy measures.

Finally the report identifies the most promising measures such as the promotion of a common knowledge basis stemming from the IPCC work or an action on the impact of the persistent linear contrails.

In all and any case the French DGAC may play a central part and contribute to a cleaner aviation compliant with the environment principes.


Study Report

Sensitivity analysis of NA "Number Above" noise indicator

STAC – 2010 - A4 - 50 pages - 24 €

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DGAC/DTA asked STAC to make this study to assess the potential use of noise index NA “number above” in France.

Three cases were studied : a virtual airport, Bâle-Mulhouse airport (noise insulation map 2008) and Orly airport (noise insulation map 2004).

The impact of different parameters on NA noise contours was studied to better-understand NA behaviour. This sensitivity analysis concerns :

  • parameters linked with traffic assumptions : total number of movements, relative impact of landings and take-offs, relative impact of heavy aircraft / medium aircraft / regional aircraft / general aviation, and impact of fleet characteristics;
  • modelling parameters : flight profiles, INM database, track dispersion, topography, grid refinement;
  • parameters linked with the noise index construction: NA-SEL, NA-night The NA noise contours (NA70, NA65, NA62) were calculated for many scenarios.

The analysis of surface and graphical comparisons allowed to better-understand NA behaviour and to compare with Lden behaviour.

This study identifies not only the well-known advantages of NA (simple definition easily understandable by the public, arithmetic behaviour, frequency effect taken into account in NA definition), but also the principal technical drawbacks of this index:

  • Difficulty to define common and relevant limit values for every airfield;
  • Important threshold and border effects;
  • Noise index more unstable and unforeseeable than Lden index;
  • Limited and, in some cases, non existing effects of fleet modernization on NA contours.

The matter of correlation between NA index and noise annoyance expressed by the neighbours around airfields is outside the scope of this study and shall be studied in serious epidemiologic survey which could, for example, conclude on the relevance to use NA-night index to evaluate sleep disturbance and long term health effect.


Technical Guidance

Impact of airport activity on ground pollution

STAC – 2010 - CD-ROM - 25 €

This guide is reserved for use of certain categories of users ; available only on order

Overview of the technical guide

This document is mainly intended for the airport operators who wish to integrate ground pollution issues in their environmental strategy. As well, this document present some technical data for authorities, consultants and environmental experts in charge of ground pollution diagnosis.

It received during five years of study, the technical expertise of a working group composed of several institutes and organizations (INERIS, BRGM, ENSAIA, CETE Nord Picardie...).

This guide includes two complementary parts :

  • the first part, related to the methodological approach to diagnosis of ground pollution,
  • the second part, related to the results coming from feedbacks and airport investigation.

This chapter provides technical data and informations on the impact of airport activities on ground pollution.

The results presented in this guide are derived from measurement campaigns conducted with the technical and financial support of Toulouse-Blagnac airport, Paris-Le Bourget airport, Montpellier-Mediterranée airport, and French Army.


Study Report

Use of radar data to compute noise exposure maps

Example of Nantes-Atlantique noise exposure map

STAC - 2009 - A4 - 26 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 2,8 Mo)

There are two methods of modelling aircraft ground tracks for noise contours: theoretic tracks based on AIP description or use of radar data. The most common method used to compute noise contours is the theoretic tracks method.

ACNUSA (French independant authority in charge of aircraft noise around airports) asked a sensitivity analysis to compare the 2 methods and to evaluate the impact of radar data on noise contours.

The example of Nantes-Atlantiques noise exposure map has been studied.


Study Report

Processus physico-chimiques et biologiques de dégradation des produits de viabilité hivernale

STAC - LROP

Executive summary 2009 - A4 - 12 pages - 17 €

Experimental study report - Strasbourg and Basel-Mulhouse airports – 2008 A4 – 43 pages + annexes 242 pages – 30 €

Read the executive summary - Download the executive summary (pdf 948 Ko)

Read the study report - Download the study report (pdf 688 Ko)

Read the annexes - Download the annexes (pdf 11,5 Mo)

In winter conditions, stormwater organic pollution caused by aircraft and runway deicing materials has been demonstrated on a number of French airports.

One of the main issues with stormwater management concerns the control of the organic pollution before discharge into aquatic environment and especially the knowledge of chemical and biological parameters which could improve degradation of deicing products. In this context, STAC has initiated in 2000, with the assistance of some laboratories, a first study dealing with the process of biodegradation deicing products used during Winter operations.

This work was extended in 2006 by an experimental study led on Bale-Mulhouse and Strasbourg airports.

All the results are presented in this document.


Technical Information

Airport ground pollution general context

STAC - 2007 - A4 - 40 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 887 Ko)

This document reminds the general context of ground pollution and presents some useful definitions for general understanding on this subject.

It includes a description of main pollutants found in airport environment and an overview of environmental and health impacts associated with the contamination of these soils.


Study Report

Taking into account de-icing practices for airport operations - Statistical report 2003-2006

2003-2006 Survey

STAC - 2007 - A4 - 57 pages - 23 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 1,6 Mo)

This document presents the results of a survey dated 2006 with the assistance of several national airports. This survey covers the three winter periods between 2003 and 2006.

It proposes an inventory of deicing practices (aircraft and runways deicing operations) in France and provides some advice to optimize deicing procedures and to take into account environmental issues.


Technical Guidance

Soundproofing of buildings in the vicinity of airports

Technical information - Reference points

STAC - 2006 - A4 - 48 pages - Price : 17 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 3,3 Mo)

This guide intends to give some technical reference for people involved in soundproofing of buildings around big airports, in order to facilitate it and to optimize the results, technically and financially.

It presents basic elements including aircraft noise specificities, as well as many examples of solutions and a methodology for people in charge of soundproofing.


Study Report

Environmental and sanitary impacts of aircraft and runway de-icing products and their additives used on airports

CETE Nord-Picardie, STAC - 2006 - A4 - 53 pages - 23 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 527 Ko)

Aircraft and runways deicing operations are necessary to ensure safety of aviation activity during winter periods. However, these operations cause the discharge of chemicals (such as acetats, formats and glycols) increasing aquatic environment pollution.

This document presents and summarizes all data and references related to the impact of these deicing fluids and some of their additives on environment and health.


Study Report

Impact of trafic parameters on Lden noise contours

STBA - 2004 - A4 - 83 pages + annexes 65 pages - 42 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 5,5 Mo)

Noise exposure maps (PEB) which define land use zoning around airports and noise insulation maps (PGS) are based on noise contours. Calculation of these noise contours depends on several parameters: the number and the type of movements, day-evening-night trafic distribution, temperature, topography, tracks lateral dispersion, glide slope, climb slope...

The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of each parameter on noise contours.

The final objectives of this analysis asked by ACNUSA are:

  • to identify the most sensitive parameters to focus on these;
  • to better undestand noise model behaviour.

Technical Guidance

Compliance with water regulation on airports

STBA - 2003 - A4 - 48 pages + 11 data sheets 2/4 pages - Price : 33 €

Read technical guidance - Read data sheets

Download technical guidance (pdf 2 Mo) - Download data sheets (pdf 1,5 Mo)

Considering their large waterproof surfaces and their activities and operating systems, airports are directly involved in water regulation and several of its implementing decrees (some of them laying down conditions of airport compliance and water protection).

This document is intended to provide technical assistance to airports managers and environmental expert in their approach to airports compliance with water regulation.


Technical Guidance

Environmental study of airport mass plan draft

Taking environment into account for airport planning

STBA - 2002 - binder 25x32 cm - 82 pages - Price : 43 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 2,3 Mo)

Environmental study of airport mass plan draft is part of regulation concerning nature protection which initiated the notion of "impact". It can bring answers to environmental concern due to creation and modification of airport infrastructures.

It is also part of sustained development principle, taking into account social and economical aspects of the project.

Project managers will find the following pieces of information in this technical and practical guide :

  • Environmental elements to be taken into account for airport equipment planification,
  • Indications to formalize them in the environmental study attached to the mass plan draft report.

Technical Guidance

Noise and airplane tracks monitoring

Guidance material about technical specifications for airport noise monitoring systems

STNA - 2002 - A4 - 64 pages - Price : 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf 1,1 Mo)

Knowledge and control of noise emitted by planes in the vicinity of airports is a domain of high public interest.

Automated noise monitoring systems can improve communication with the neighbours of the airport and help them to deal with their complaints. They also can improve air traffic noise annoyance management.

This document is a guide intended to airport operators who wish to implement such a system. It describes the equipment required, data acquisition and processing.

This guide should help operators to write technical specifications in order to buy a noise monitoring system in the vicinity of an airport.


Updated December 8, 2016