Safety - Security

Study report

Wildlife hazard analysis in France, 2010-2013

STAC - 2017 - A4 - 82 pages - 33 €

Read french version - Download frenchversion (pdf file 9,1 Mo)

This study report aims at assessing wildlife hazard on civil airfields during the period of time between 2010 and 2013. It deals with :

  • a national statement of wildlife evolution during the considered period of time allowing to compare France with other european states,
  • A detailled collection of wildlife strikes upon aerodromes pointing out the efforts engaged by airport managers and the way forward to mitigate the risk of incidents below international means of incidents or serious events.

This report is mainly dedicated to the French Civil Aviation Authority and airport managers in charge of wildlife hazard prevention and ANSP.

However, airlines, whose pilots provide some of the information analysed, might also be interested in reading this document.

Technical Information

Birdstrikes & light aviation

How to prevent collisions with birds of prey ?

STAC - 2017 - A4 - 20 pages - Free

Read french version - Download french version (pdf file 5,2 Mo)

Each year in France more than 800 birdstrikes are notified to the Civil Aviation Authority and 8% of them are damaging. Among the animal species involved in birdstrikes, birds of prey represent the main issue to aviation safety in France.

More than 30% of birdstrikes are attributed to this large family of birds, especially during take-off and landing phases. Although the number of collisions in cruse level remains significantly lower than at low altitudes, their consequences are generally very damaging to aircraft and crews, particularly in the case of small aircraft.

Following the recent accidents in Spain with large raptors, this document proposes to remind some guidelines in order to reduce the occurrence of birdstrikes with large birds, particularly during flights at low altitude through mountainous areas.

Technical Guidance

HAPI using, installation and maintenance

STAC - 2017 - A4 - 42 pages - 24 €

Read french version - Download french version (pdf file 8 Mo)

Visual aids are an essential component of the safety and regularity of air transport, as well as to general aviation. Consequently, a special attention must be carried to their design and implementation.

The Helicopter Approach Path Indicator (HAPI) provides the pilot with the necessary visual information to place the helicopter on the defined approach slope for the helistation.

This guide aims to make available for the aerodromes owners the necessary elements for the implementation of the HAPI.

Technical Guidance


Implementation, installation and maintenance

STAC - 2017 - A4 - 68 pages - 33 €

Read french version - Download french version (pdf file 6,2)

Visual aids are an essential component of the safety and regularity of air transport, as well as to general aviation.

Consequently, a special attention must be carried to their design and implementation. The Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) is designed to provide pilots with information for the slope of the followed approach.

This guide aims to make available for the aerodromes operators the necessary elements for the implementation of the PAPI.

Technical Information

Wake turbulence

STAC - 2016 - A4 - 43 pages - Free

Read french version - Download french version (pdf file 2,7 Mo)

Aircraft in flight generate wake turbulence which essentially takes the form of two wake vortices. The risk for aircraft flying through the wake turbulence of preceding aircraft is even more important that the generating aircraft is big - the intensity of the wake turbulence is then very high - and the encountering aircraft is small, with a low roll controllability.

To minimize dangerous encounters, minimum separation between aircraft is defined. Today, internationally and nationally, aircraft are classified in categories according to their mass and separations are defined between the different aircraft categories.

Some airports, constrained in terms of capacity, implement reduced separations based on a different aircraft classification. In Europe, the project led by Eurocontrol - RECAT-EU - and validated by the European aviation safety agency in the fall of 2014, is the reference.

The wake turbulence encounters shall be reported, according to European regulations. These occurrences are then monitored and the most notable incidents or recurring events are subject to further analysis in order to amend regulations, if necessary.

Technical Guidance

Assessment of wildlife hazard on aerodromes

STAC - 2016 - A4 - 54 pages - 33 €

This document is under modification

The assessment of wildlife hazard on aerodromes is a recent approach governed by several international recommendations and several European or French statutory instruments. It is used to identify the wildlife species considered to be a problem for aviation safety on each aerodrome, based on the strikes in which they are involved and their year-round presence on aerodromes and their vicinity.

Wildlife hazard assessment follows a method developed by the STAC (French Civil Aviation Technical Centre) on civil aerodromes. This approach based on the measurement of a statistical and local risk level should enable us to define courses of action graduated for each wildlife species present on aerodromes.

This technical document offers a risk assessment methodology which may be used by certified aerodrome operators to develop and implement their own wildlife hazard prevention programme.

Technical Guidance

Ground handling and flight safety

State of the art, best practices and awareness

STAC - DSAC- 2015 - A4 - 76 pages

Read English version - Download English version (pdf file 7,4 Mo)

Document published as part of the Ground handling symposium organized by the Directorate of Civil Aviation Safety - December 10, 2015

Ground handling activities include all the services an aircraft needs during the time it remains on ground. These activities are also direct contributors to flight safety.

This guide aims at gathering commonly accepted procedures but also best practices and innovations in order to improve flights safety level. Proposed practices are presented so that they can be applied in various contexts and their adoption is up to each company in accordance with its own constraints and characteristics. Nevertheless, airports, airlines or regulations requirements should prevail.

A special attention was given to the illustrations and justifications of these practices with real examples which can easily be extracted to develop ground handling internal trainings.

Technical Information

Taxiway Separation for ICAO code C Aeroplanes

STAC - 2014 - A4 - 8 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (pdf file 5,4 Mo)

In order to support the Aerodrome Design Working Group reviewing of ICAO taxiway to object separation standards, a statistical study about ICAO code C taxiway separations was undertaken by the French Civil Aviation Technical Centre (STAC).

The study aimed at assessing risks associated with current code C taxiway separations, using deviation data collected on code E taxiways at Charles-de-Gaulle Airport (LFPG). The study used statistical extreme values analysis to calculate overrunning and aircraft-object collision probabilities, in order to determine associated risk levels.

Results were compared with an FAA/Boeing Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) study about ADGIII / ICAO code C taxiway separations, and with an analysis of taxiway excursion reports from 1980 to 2011.

The study showed that the current code C taxiway to object separation is safe, and that for both French and FAA study risk models based on extreme value theory appear conservative compared to accidentology.

Study Report

Assessment and mapping method of wildlife hazard on French airfields

STAC - 2014 - A4 - 58 pages - 33 €

Read French version - (pdf file 3,6 Mo)

As part of the implementation of new European regulation and the new wildlife hazard prevention service order, aerodrome operators are responsible for the risk assessment of wildlife on their platform and its surroundings.

This study proposes to airport operators a method to evaluate wildlife hazard. This method is based on a statistical approach to animal collisions, coupled with environmental field observations. This animal risk assessment should help to establish more effective and adapted animal risk mitigation measures for the aerodrome.

This study report foreshadows the publication by the STAC, by late 2014, of a methodological technical guidance about the assessment of wildlife hazard.

Technical Guidance

Wildlife hazard and airfield environment

Risks and management recommendations

STAC - 2012 - A4 - 50 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (pdf file 2,4 Mo)

The goal of this guidebook is to present the importance of the airport  environment. Birds and mammals occur on airport property for a variety of reasons, however, they are usually attracted by such essentials to life as food, water and shelter, often to be found on the restricted area or in the vicinity of an airport.

Modifications to the airport environment can remove or decrease the attractiveness of an airport to birds and mammals, thus eliminating a large part of the hazard.

Environment management is integral to wilfife control as it offers effective long-term measures for reducing the numbers of birds and mammals that will come to an airport.

Technical Information

State of the art of airport perimeter protection systems

STAC - 2012 - A4 - 68 pages - 33 €

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This technical note presents different physical equiment of perimetric protection and technologies for the detection of intrusions, usually deployed to ensure the perimetric protection of a dedicated site. This note, dedicated to airport managers having the project to create, to modify, or to replace the perimetric protection of their airport, describes the particularities of the different solutions for the perimetric protection, by highlighting their characteristics, the installations specificities, the advantages and the standards to be applied when deploying these equipments.

Technical Information

Effect of X-rays emitted by hand baggage inspection systems on motion picture and photographic media

STAC - 2012 - A4 - 4 pages - Free

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This technical Information note gives some practical recommendations to passengers on the risks of alteration of photographic films and cinematographic films by devices X ray used for the carry on baggage control. These identified risks are derived from studies carried out by the STAC in cooperation with French federation of image professionals.

In addition, a sample poster for air travelers is provided.

Technical Information

Aircraft lateral deviation during landing

Measurement techniques and preliminary findings

STAC - 2011 - A4 8 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (327 Ko)

As aircraft technologies continuously evolve, the need of assessing the current dimensioning method of runway width was identified. Therefore, the STAC mandated the French Geographic Institute (IGN) to develop a system to measure, during 5 seconds, the lateral position of aircraft from the runway centreline at touchdown.

The IGN system is based on a multiple stereoscopic vision and photogrammetric measurements of the aircraft position during the landing phase. Thanks to its advantages (passive, on-ground, lightness and precision), this system easily overcame the airport airside constraints.

The measurements were conducted at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport from 13th November 2008 to 22nd December, 2008. They enabled the STAC to confirm its conclusions about the current aircraft codification system and its consequences on the design of runways.

Study Report

Systems for automated detection of objects and debris on runway

Exploratory study

STAC - 2011 - A4 - 134 pages - 42 €

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Currently, debris on runways, which are sources of damages, loss of capacity, even of accidents, are spotted and removed during visual inspections.

For some years, Industry has been proposing automated and continuous detection systems for debris on runways.

The STAC has undertaken an exploratory study for validation of both the relevance and the maturity of these systems. An analysis grid of such systems was built; considering the performances of the systems, the impact on airport operation and the operational use of the systems themselves.

Thus, the three following systems were identified as relevant and mature: TARSIER by QinetiQ, iFerret by Stratech and FoDetect by XSight. Some points still need further investigation: the on site systems operation, the precise field of systems reliability, the real impact on airport capacity and lastly, the management of the decision for intervention following detection.

Study Report

Visual aids to prevent runway incursion

State of the art and projects

STAC - 2011 - A4 - 22 pages - 24 €

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Runway incursions are a major risk on aerodromes. Visual aids may be globally assessed as a simple means to prevent runway incursion: a marking or a lighting unit warns the pilot he is approaching the runway area.

However visual aids efficiency may be reduced by bad meteorological conditions as poor visibility or runway and taxiway contamination. Moreover, runway incursions records lead to establish that means provided on airports are not sufficient even under good meteorological conditions.

The objective of this document is to present the state of the art of visual aids to prevent runway incursions and projects and experiments related to that topic. The relevance of means is analysed in accordance with the various operational contexts through an advantage/disadvantage comparaison.

Technical Information

Aircraft arresting systems

STAC - 2011 - A4 - 4 pages - Free

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Arresting systems, such as net and cable systems, were initially developed for military applications, and are mainly used in naval aviation. In order to fulfil the requirements related to runway end safety areas (RESA), especially when the available room is limited, arresting solutions for civil aircraft are necessary.

The arresting nets were successfully tested in the Seventies with a Concord and a Boeing 707. However, further industrial research and development must be performed before considering their use on civil airports.

Engineered material arresting systems, such as Zodiac’s EMASMAX, are interesting for both their immediate availability and the predictability of the stopping distances. EMASMAX, already installed on about forty airports, is being evaluated in France, through a project for means of compliance to the RESA requirements.

Technical Guidance

Operation and maintenance of land-based arresting gear systems

STAC - 2010 - A4 - 38 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (3,5 Mo)

Arresting gear systems are installed on runways of French Navy airfields receiving aircraft equipped with arrestor hook. These systems allow simulations of deck landings and also provide emergency braking devices for aircraft landing or stopping at the end of the runway in case of aborted take-off. They are essential for a safe training of Navy airplane pilots.

The successful operation of these facilities is related to combined actions of staff and services in charge of preventive and corrective maintenance of all levels.

This technical guidance is intended for personnel of French Navy airfields responsible for the operation and maintenance of these arresting gear systems. It is a compendium of actions to ensure proper operation.

Study Report

Effect of X-rays emitted by hand baggage inspection systems on motion picture

STAC - 2010 - A4 - 14 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (3,9 Mo)

The STAC, in collaboration with the French federation of image professionals, conducted a study with the aim to quantify the impact of silver halide films used for cinema movies due to security, equipment using Xrays.

It appears from this study a risk of damaging which is varying according the sensitivity of the supports and the technology of the security equipment.

The report indicates the value of the measured luminance differences. In addition, recommendations to passengers are made.

Study Report

Effect of X-rays emitted by hand baggage inspection systems on photographic media

STAC - 2010 - A4 - 14 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (1,2 Mo)

The STAC, in collaboration with the French federation of image professionals, conducted a study with the aim to quantify the impact of argentic films used for photos due to security equipment using Xrays.

It appears from this study a risk of damaging which is varying according the sensitivity of the supports and the technology of the security equipment. The report indicates the value of the measured luminance differences. In addition, recommendations to passengers are made.

Study Report

Wildlife hazard analysis in France - 2006-2009

STAC - 2010 - A4 - 52 pages - 33 €

Read French version - Download French version (7,5 Mo)

This statistical report presents the findings of a study carried out with the civil aircafts impacts of animals sent by the airlines and airports managers to the STAC (Civil Aviation Technical Service) or recovered from ECCAIRS database reports.

It highlights a slight decrease rate of animal strikes for 10 000 commercial aircraft movements, with five very serious incidents recorded during the considered period.

Sixty five animals species have been involved in these collisions, mainly in summer, during take-off and landing phases. Ninety four percent of the events had no consequences but the number of aborted-take-off is increasing.

Twenty major French airports presents rates of collisions per 10 000 aircraft movements above national rates (cf. database stac-picaweb).

Technical Guidance

Wildlife hazard in France

STAC - 2010 - A4 - 44 pages - Price : 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (5,1 Mo)

Prevention and fight against wild life hazard is one of the main missions of flight safety, in particular at and around airports.

Since July, 1989, fight against the avian risk has been regulated. All the airports of national interest were endowed with services, operating means and scaring methods.

These measures were extended to the other animal species which can present a risk for aircrafts.

It is possible that in spite of the efforts of communication and formation on the subject, the entities in charge of these missions can have difficulties joining all the relevant elements into the good execution of the task.

That's why, it was considered convenient to put at their disposal a guide whose purpose is :

  • To specify the importance of the treatment of animal collisions ;
  • To give informations about bird airworthiness requirements ;
  • To explain the new organization of fight against wildlife hazard in France since 2007.

Technical Guidance

Wildlife regulation on airports

STAC - 2010 - A4 - 64 pages - Price : 33 €

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When wildlife and operation of an airport require an immediate action for flight safety, regulation of animal populations becomes essential.

The main domains worrying the airports' administrators such as administrative beats, fences against game, rabbit capture with ferret and hunting protected animals are shown and developed in this guide.

The statutory aspect of hunting species subjected to quota as well as the circulars dealing with authorization of diurnal and night-shooting, are presented in a formal and explicit way.

The "bird flu" procedures applied to airports remind actions, orders and protocol which were validated by French Ministry of Health.

Technical Guidance

Auditor's guide - Recommendations for ATM safety regulatory audits

STAC - 2009 - A4 - 40 pages - 24 €

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The auditor’s guide is mainly intended for people in charge of conducting safety regulatory audits in the frame of their activities of certification and oversight of Air Navigation Service Providers.

It completes, in the form of recommendations, the procedures and arrangements required by the French National Supervisory Authority of Air Navigation Service Providers.

The document describes, at first, a technical methodology of reference, based on good practices and recommendations provided by Eurocontrol in the frame of the safety oversight of ATM regulatory requirements (ESARR 1), and by ISO in the domain of Management Systems (ISO 19011) audits. It compiles in a second time some practical sheets for the audits conducting.

The good practices compiled in this guide aim to be updated, by being incorporated in a cycle that includes auditors training, audits performance and feedback consideration.

Mainly focused on audit techniques, the document also does not include any interpretation nor regulation implementation material in the domain of ATM.

Finally, the application of this methodology should remain flexible, and auditors should tailor the tools and practices to the procedures, regulations and objectives that are required by their clients, but also to the size, nature and complexity of the audited organisms.

Technical Guidance

ATM data recording system - Guide to regulation application

STAC - 2009 - A4 - 64 pages

This guidance is for internal use of French CAA only

Investigations after an accident are an important part of the safety loop in the aviation world. This is why ATM data (conversation between ATC and pilots, coordination between ATC centers; radar data, weather data, flight plan information, etc…) must be recorded similarly as CVR and DFRD operates in the aircraft itself.

This guide addresses the technical and operational requirements related to the recording of Air Traffic Management data. Such requirements are applicable to any French Air Navigation Services following the publication of the French regulation named “Arrêté du 20 octobre 2004 relatif aux enregistrements des données relatives à la gestion du trafic aérien”.

The guide has been developed to be a guidance material for those providers. For this purpose, it includes technical interpretation of the regulation together with standard procedure and models of documents which may be used by the provider to comply with the regulation. It is split into 14 different chapters and 4 annexes :

  • 1. Introduction and objectives of the guide
  • 2. Glossary
  • 3. Procedure
  • 4. Setting up a recording system
  • 5. Checking of the conformity – Filling in the technical file
  • 6. Filling in the conformity statement
  • 7. Acknowledgement of receipt
  • 8. Operating the system
  • 9. Unavailability notifications
  • 10. Providing the records in case of investigation
  • 11. Providing the records for audits
  • 12. Audits
  • 13. Equipment qualification by STAC
  • 14. FAQ
  • 15. Customers feed-back
  • Annexe A – References
  • Annexe B – Detailed Objectives / Requirements
  • Annexe C – Synthesis
  • Annexe D – ANSP classification according to French criteria

Study Report

RAL colour designation for windfarm

STAC - 2009 - A4 - 12 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (392 Ko)

The report presents the results of a study carried out on the chromaticity characteristics of the RAL colour designation system, and especially for the white samples.

It is determined which samples of the RAL colour system comply with ICAO Annex 14 requirements in terms of chromaticity coordinates and luminance factor.

Study Report

Software dependability assessment and control - State of the art

STAC - 2009 - A4 - 26 pages - 24 €

Read French version - Download French version (709 Ko)

Software consideration in safety cases led by ANSP (Air Navigation Services Providers) is a new feature introduced by Regulation EC 482/2008 published on May 1st, 2008. Up to now, if these studies attempted to demonstrate that the hardware part of systems is reliable, they did not still integrate a demonstration of a justified confidence in the fact that the software is safe. This component is made mandatory through the publication of this new regulation (EC 482/2008).

The purpose of this state of the art is to make a point, not only on existing methods of evaluation of the safety of software (determination of a software reliability or process approach), but also on tools allowing to provide the justified confidence in this safety.

Technical Guidance

Hunting weapons and pyrotechnics

Use of hunting weapons and pyrotechnics for the prevention of wildlife hazard on civil aerodromes

STAC - 2007 (updated in 2011) - A4 - 74 pages - 33 €

Read French version - Download French version (2,7 Mo)

The golden rules for safe gun, pistol, rifle, pyrotechnic handling on civil airport.

This guide is intended for the French airports administrators and specially for the agents in charge of the prevention of the animal hazard.

It describes exactly the safety regulations of the staffs, the pyrotechnic means the most used on aerodromes, hunting equipments : shotguns, rifles and their ammunitions.

The knowledge of the recommandations written in this guide should allow to avoid the accidents both to the staffs in charge of the animal fight and also to the people working on aerodromes or in the vicinity.

When you use or store a gun inside a civil airport for wildlife service, always follow these rules :

  • Know your target and what is beyond, know how to use the gun safety, be sure that the gun is safe to oprate,
  • Use only the correct ammunition for your gun, wear eye and ear protection as appropriate.

Technical Information

Wildlife hazard

STAC - 2007 - Leaflet A5 - 6 pages - Free

Read French version - Download French version (1,4 Mo)

800 birdstrikes are recorded in France each year for civil aviation. Approximately 15% of them increase traffic delays and cause more or less important damages to airframes and engines.

This leaflet describes technical characteristics and statistics regarding birdstrike in France and all over the world, and also presents prevention measures.


Study Report

Wildlife hazard analysis

Statistical report 2001-2005

STAC - 2006 - A4 - 76 pages - 33 €

Read French version - Download French version (4,3 Mo)

This study aims, through data analysis performed, to estimate the importance of the birdstrike risks in France over the years and especially on civil aerodromes where 80 % of the collisions are recorded.

It includes :

  • a national assessment showing the evolutionary trend of birdstrike risk according to weather, allowing to position France with regard to the other European States;
  • a more detailed study on aerodromes showing the efforts done by the airport managers and the improvements to be performed to reach an acceptable level of risk ;
  • a first approach of the collisions with mammals, to extend the fight to the animal risk.

Technical Guidance

Birds on French airports

Birdstrike prevention

STAC - 2005 - A5 - 98 pages - Price : 33 €

Read French version - Download French version (5,8 Mo)

This guide is mainly intended for the staffs in charge of birdstrike fight on French aerodromes, to allow them to know better most common species.

One hundred and six species are illustrated in plumages and mostly observed attitudes.

Advice on the most appropriated scaring methods is given for every species, by insisting on the most dangerous for the aviation.

Technical Guidance

Airport security

Design of hold baggage screening systems

STBA - 2003 - A4 - 112 pages - Price : 42 €

This guide is reserved for use of certain categories of users ; available only on order

Read French version of summary - Download French version of summary (1,2 Mo)

This technical guide has been written in 2003 by the head of the hold baggage screening subdivision, Mr Jérôme Fontaine, state engineer in the French civil aviation technical service.

It is based on the considerable STAC experience coming from thinkings, meetings, studies, designs, experimentations and testing of hold baggage screening systems in France and in foreign countries, including member states of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC).

This book is a guidance to provide technical advises for building the better system to screen hold baggage before they are loaded on the aircrafts.

It is not a standard imposed by a regulation, nor an outcome of regulation which has changed since it has been written.

This guidance does not treat about architectural design of passenger terminals, even if it gets easier or more difficult the installation of hold baggage screening systems.

Updated Apr. 13, 2017